An introduction to particle physics.
Isomers are the same nuclide at different energy states. We have also learned that the mass of a nuclide is not the sum of masses of its components. Thus, particles combine more like waves and energy than like individual particles. Many composite particles have excited energy states in addition to the ground (the lowest stable) state. Thus, considering these particles as energy states rather than rigid particles enable us to understand many facits of particles.
During the past century, many short-lived particles have been discovered in addition to atoms and subatomic particles. These particles eventually decay into energies and subatomic particles.
Since the invention of the concept of antiparticles and the discovery of positrons, we believe that for every particle, there is an antiparticle. The study of particles usually falls into the discipline of particle physics or high energy physics, and this discipline is an extension of nuclear phenomena.
Regarding particles, we will discuss the following aspects.