Free nucleons are called baryons in particle physics. Protons and neutrons inter-convert into each other, accompanied by the emission of leptons (electron and neutrino) in beta decay.
Protons, neutrons, electrons, and neutrinos are common subatomic particles involved with radioactive decay. Their rest masses, charges, spins, stabilities, and magnetic moments are fundamental properties, usually listed in standard references. However, the rest mass of neutrinos is still uncertain.
All these particles have a spin of ½ in units of h/2p, so they are fermions.
The spin gives rise to magnetic moment, indicating that they are not point charges.
|Properties of Subatomic Particles.|
|Spin ||1/2 ||1/2
||- ||mN or mB
Several models or theories have been proposed to explain the nuclear phenomena. These models treat neutrons, protons, electrons, and neutrinos as fundamental particles.
l = 0, 1, 2, ... (n-1), orbital angular momentum
s = +½ or -½, the spin quantum number of protons and neutrons.
The total angular momentum are all possible sum of angular momentum and spin,