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The Study and Test Guide

It gives me that extra sense of pride to have learned it all by myself, the most fun thing to do.

- many people have said this -

If you find anything unclear, please let me know, and then I will revise it. Otherwise, this study guide covers the important parts that you should review for the Fall Term, 2003.

The number of questions for you to answer is small, and therefore, you have to provide a lot of details for each question, not just a few sentences. Excellent scientific contents and high quality of the answers are to be rewarded. The marking standard will be high!

To develop self-study skills is the major purpose of Chem218, and examination is a small incentive for you to consolidate the topics covered while reviewing. Thus far, no alternative to examination has been found for structured learning. Marks, however, are not representative of a person's overall ability or skill; they are indicative of how well one knows in some limited areas. To some extend, marks have some correlations with your ability to communicate and organize information. All these are important in order to survive in the real world, and be able to learn from other's judgment on what you have done will insure your success for whatever you are pursuing. Certainly, the more background knowledge you have accumulated, the more able you will solve problems and make better decisions, two most important abilities or skills for anyone to have.

The course contents are information that I consider reliable and useful. Thus, I do want you to spend sometime to review them and get to some depth on these topics. In doing so, you may transfer this type of learning to other topics.

Since learning is a task for the learner not the instructor, regimental style and training approach are not used throughout the term, and the course contents are not rigid; you are naturally anxious about the final examination. For this reason, some example tasks and questions are given in bold, accompanied by guides (not in bold) to help you prepare for the final exam. To be fair and to encourage a broader scope for learning, a small portion of the questions may be outside this guide.

You may also use this guide to develop strategies to write the final exam from your pool of knowledge.

This guide is not a list of questions and standard answers. The suggestions are based on the available documents on the Chem218 websites. I encourage you to do further research into more depth on some of the topics, especially those you find interesting.

The Life of Stars

Solar system



Atmospheric Chemistry


The Carbon Cycle

The Carbon Cycle describes the chemical changes of carbon on the planet Earth. A global view of chemistry is exemplified by carbon, and one may apply the same approach to look at chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, water, and other elements or compounds.

In nuclear fusion, carbon cycle describes the fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium taking place in the Sun catalyzed by carbon. This aspect has not been covered during the Fall of 2003, but it is mentioned here to let you know that this term may mean something very different.

Carbon Oxides


Physical Properties of Material

Chemical Properties of Material

Biological Properties of Material

Water Chemistry

Some essays are written based on articles for the general public, or for readers at school levels, not sufficiently high for students at university levels. Please read this article because it is in a handbook style, and it serves as an example of suitable source of information in your future research and learning for essays and reports.

Contents of this article overlaps with other pages in the Menu on the Chem218 Website, but the language and style may be different due to the intended audience. Some questions listed in this section are based on material on other pages of Chem218 Website.

It goes without saying that some of you have already read this article, and your essays reflect that. Needless to say that I am pleased to see your results and I am very glad for you.

Here are some questions for you to bear in mind as guides for review purpose.

Physical Properties of Water

Natural Water

Water Treatment

Both Water Chemistry and Water treatment cover almost the same material, but please read both and note the slight difference in style of presentation. The latter was intended for teaching, but the material in Water Chemistry is somewhat formal.

The following topics will not be tested for the Fall Term of 2003

Solids, Metals, and Inorganic solids

Inorganic Solids

Hess's Law and Lattice Energy

Enthalpy of Hydration

Coordination Compounds

Complex Ion Equilibria

Molecular Orbital Theory of Heterogeneous Diatomic Molecules

Please e-mail me any question you may have at any time.