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The Material World

Perception of the basic building blocks of material

• Robert Boyle's view of chemical elements proposed almost three hundred years ago is still true. Thus, you should be able to define and explain what are chemical elements.
• Parts of the atomic theory proposed by John Dalton more than two hundred years ago are no longer true, but merits of his theory remains. Discuss his atomic theory, and point out the faults and merits of this theory.
• Describe the modern view of atoms in terms of their constituents, sizes, nuclear and atomic and structures.

Materials in the universe

• Describe the life of a star including how it forms, begin as a star, reaction during the time it is recognized as a star, evolving during it life time, and what happens after its fuel is burned out.
• What reactions take place in the Sun? How is energy generated? How is energy transmitted from the Sun to other places in the universe?

Materials in the solar system

• From the table of data for the solar system, sketch a picture of the solar system, including the orbits of the various planets. Do not worry about the exact scale in the sketch.
• In your opinion, how was the solar system formed?

Materials in the planet Earth

• Sketch the structure of the planet Earth to show the layer structure and indicate the major material present in each of the layers.

Atoms and molecules as building blocks of material

• Fully describe and distinguish these terms: atoms, molecules, ions, mixtures, solutions and aggregates.

Material, matter and energy

• Discuss the three laws of conservation: conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of mass and energy due to Einstein's equation E = m c2

Photons as Bundles of Light Energy

• How did Einstein's experiment confirm Planck's formula? In answering this question, explain the photoelectric effect and conservation of energy. Show how to evaluate the Planck constant, h.
• Apply Planck's equation E = h v to calculate energy of photon of giving wavelength or frequency. If the energy of the photon is given, evaluate the wavelength or frequency.

Properties of Material

Organizing Properties of Materials

This section is intended to direct your attention to where properties information may be found.

Physical Properties

• Sketch and describe the phase diagrams of water and carbon dioxide.
• Define and describe the following terms: thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductance, heat capacity, specific heat, polarized light.
• What is magnetic susceptibility? What type of material is paramagnetic?

Chemical Properties

• Describe the Lewis concept of acids and bases, and use examples to illustrate your points if applicable.
• List ten (10) terms that are used to describe chemical properties of a substance.
• Assume that methane, ethane, and propane behave like ideal gases. Their molar heats (enthalpies) of combustion are 212.8, 372.8, and 530.6 kcal/mol respectively. Which is the best buy if these gases are purchased at \$1, \$2, and \$3 per 100 cubic meter? Supplement your claim with derived (calculated) data.
• Hydrochloric acid, HCl, can be made by distillation from a mixture of sufuric acid and sodium chloride, why?

Biological Properties

• What is meant by hydrophilic and lipophilic material?
• What properties of ceramic make this class of material suitable as biomaterial?

Engineering Properties

• Why is diamond the hardest substance? Explain the reason based on its crystal structure.
• Why is copper the best material for electrical wires?