Method of Production:

To refine titanium from the raw material, ilmenite or rutile is treated at red heat with chlorine and carbon, producing TiCl4 (equation 1).  The TiCl4 is fractionally distilled from FeCl3 and other impurities and then reduced with molten magnesium at 1000 degrees Celcius in an atmosphere of argon (equation 3).  The MgCl2 and excess Mg are removed either by volatilization at 1000 degrees Celcius or by leaching with dilute HCl.  This leaves titanium as a spongy mass which may be cast into ingots using an electric arc under an atmosphere of argon.

2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C ---->  2 TiCl4 + 2  FeCl3 + 6 CO  (1)
TiCl4 + 2 Mg ----> Ti + 2 MgCl2  (2)