The Stimulating World of Titanium Wedding Rings

TITAN Wedding Rings Inc.

Introduction

Product Manufacturing

TITAN Wedding Ring Pricing

 

Elemental Titanium

Physical and Chemical Properties

Production

Uses

 

Trivia

Health and Safety

Introduction_______________________________________________________________________

Titanium - The Metal of the Future

Latin for Titans, the first sons of the Earth, titanium has unique properties that make it the metal of choice today. It's environmentally friendly since it can be recycled and it's the ninth most plentiful metal in the earth's crust.

It's hypo-allergenic since unlike most stainless steel, it's nickel-free. Even when skin perspires, titanium can be worn comfortably. And it's ideal for divers and water sports enthusiasts since it's especially resistant to sea-water corrosion.

Titanium So Much Harder, It's Patented!

By itself, titanium is 405 times stronger than stainless steel - making it the ideal choice for watch cases, bracelets and wedding rings. However, ordinary titanium stains and scratches quite easily. TITAN Wedding Rings Inc. has created and patented a 3 step Multi-Layer Glass Coating that makes our rings twice as hard as other titanium rings so they’re extremely scratch proof! No one else can offer this benefit to consumers.

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Product Manufacturing_____________________________________________________________

TITAN Wedding Rings Inc. uses a metal injection molding process to create the most elegantly shaped titanium wedding rings on the market today.

The oxidized look, prized in jewelery, is obtained by anodizing the metal by dipping it in an electrified solution. The quality of the surface varies with the thickness of the oxide, which in turn varies with the voltage applied. TITAN Wedding Rings Inc. uses the solvent ammonium sulfate and/or phosphoric acid.

Biff is workin' hard to custom fabricate your rings for that special day.

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TITAN Wedding Ring Pricing________________________________________________________

These prices are in Canadian Dollars

 

Aircraft Grade Titanium (hard)

Basic Grade Titanium (soft)

2.5mm to

5mm

$160

$112

6mm up to

10mm

$185

$130

11mm up to

15mm

$210

$155

 

Physical and Chemical Properties____________________________________________________

General Information

Molecular Formula

Ti

Atomic Weight

47.867 /mol

Melting Point

1668 +/- 10 degrees Celsius

Boiling Point

3287 degrees Celsius

Specific Gravity

4.54

Density

4.5 @ 20 degrees C

Atomic Radius

1.36A

Ionic Crystal Radii

0.90 A (+2); 0.68 A (+4)

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)

1.5

Mass Numbers for Natural Isotopes

46,47,48,49,50

Conductivity

150 Btu/sq.ft/f/hr

Vicker's Hardness

80-100

 

Physical Properties

Raw titanium occurs in a sponge-like form and is silver white in color. When oxidized the metal takes on a distinctive opalecent, violet-blue surface. It has a low density, good strength, is easily fabricated, and has excellent corrosion resistance. It is ductile only when it is free of oxygen. The metal burns in air and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. Titanium is resistant to dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, most organic acids, moist chlorine gas, and chloride solutions.

Isotopes

Natural titanium consists of five isotopes with atomic masses from 46 to 50. [48 (73.94%); 46 (7.93%); 47 (7.28%); 49 (5.51%); 50 (5.34%)] All are stable. Fifteen other unstable isotopes are known. The metal is dimorphic. The hexagonal alpha form changes to the cubic beta form very slowly at about 880 deg C.

Apparent Colour

Dark gray lustrous metal. The hexagonal alpha form changes to the cubic beta form very slowly at about 882.5 degrees C.

Excellent Corrosion Resistance

Titanium is immune to corrosive attack by salt water or marine atmospheres. It also exhibits exceptional resistance to a broad range of acids, alkalis, natural waters and industrial chemicals.

Superior Erosion Resistance

Titanium offers superior resistance to erosion, cavitation or impingement attack. Titanium is at least twenty times more erosion resistant than the copper nickel alloys. The combination of high strength and low density results in exceptionally favourable strength-to-weight ratios for titanium-based alloys. These ratios for titanium-based alloys are superior to almost all other metals and become important in such diverse applications as deepwell tubestrings in the petroleum industry and surgical implants in the medical field.

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Titanium Production____________________________________________________________

Titanium was a laboratory curiosity until Kroll, in 1946, showed that titanium could be produced commercially by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium. This method is largely used for producing the metal today. The metal can be purified by decomposing the iodide.

To produce titanium, the basic ore, usually rutile (TiO2) is converted to sponge in two distinct steps First, TiO2 is mixed with coke or tar and charged in a chlorinator. Heat is applied and chlorine gas is passed through the charge. The titanium ore reacts with the chlorine to form TiCI4, titanium tetrachloride, and the oxygen is removed as CO and CO2. The resultant crude TiCI4 produced is a colorless liquid and is purified by continuous fractional distillation. It is then reacted with either magnesium or sodium under an inert atmosphere. This results in metallic titanium sponge, and either magnesium or sodium chloride which is reprocessed and recycled.

Melting is the second step. Titanium is converted from sponge to ingot by first blending crushed sponge with the desired alloying elements to insure uniformity of composition, and then pressing into briquets which are welded together to form an electrode. The electrode is melted in a consumable electrode vacuum arc furnace where an arc is struck between the electrode and a layer of titanium in a water-cooled copper crucible.

The molten titanium on the outer surface solidifies on contact with the cold wall, forming a shell or skull to contain the molten pool. The ingot is not poured, but solidifies under vacuum in the melting furnace. To insure homogeneity of the final ingot, a second or sometimes a third melting operation is applied.

Price

The price of titanium metal (99.8%) is about $550/kg.

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Titanium Uses_________________________________________________________________

Consumption Patterns

JET ENGINES AIRFRAMES, & SPACE AND MISSLE APPLICATIONS, 63%;

CHEMICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY, POWER GENERATION AND IN MARINE & ORDINANCE APPLICATIONS, 20%;

STEEL AND OTHER ALLOYS, 17%

Other Uses: as protective surface on mixers in pulp-paper industry; in aircraft and missles; in atomic reactors as casing for control wires; titanium powder used in pyrotechnics and vacuum engineering; manufacture of electrodes and lamp filaments; in surgical implants or prosthesis; manufacture of welding rods; in paint manufacturing and dye industry; medication in therapy of skin disorders; as alloy with copper and iron in titanium bronze; as addition to steel to impart great tensile strength; to aluminum to impart resistance to attack by salt solution and by organic acids; to remove traces of oxygen and nitrogen from incandescent lamps. Surgical acid (fracture fixation). In the chemical industry for tubing and lining vessels used in the production of nitric acid and acetaldehyde. A component of materials used for orthopedics, oral surgery, and neurosurgery.

Alloys

Titanium alloys are principally used for aircraft and missiles where lightweight strength and ability to withstand extremes of temperature are important. Titanium is as strong as steel, but 45% lighter. It is 60% heavier than aluminum, but twice as strong. Titanium has potential use in desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. The metal has excellent resistance to sea water and is used for propeller shafts, rigging, and other parts of ships exposed to salt water. A titanium anode coated with platinum has beenused to provide cathodic protection from corrosion by salt water. Titanium metal is considered to be physiologically inert; however, titanium powder may be a carcinogenic hazard. When pure, titanium dioxide is relatively clear and has an extremely high index of refraction with an optical dispersion higher than diamond. It is produced artificially for use as a gemstone, but it is relatively soft. Star sapphires and rubies exhibit their asterism as a result of the presence of TiO2. Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house paint and artist's paint, as it is permanent and has good covering power. Titanium oxide pigment accounts for the largest use of the element. Titanium paint is an excellent reflector of infrared, and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes poor seeing conditions. Titanium tetrachloride is used to iridize glass. This compound fumes strongly in air and has been used to produce smoke screens.

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Titanium Trivia____________________________________________________________________

Discovered by Gregor in 1791; named by Klaproth in 1795. Impure titanium was prepared by Nilson and Pettersson in 1887; however, the pure metal (99.9%) was not made until 1910 by Hunter by heating TiCl4 with sodium in a steel bomb. Titanium is present in meteorites and in the sun. Rocks obtained during the Apollo 17 lunar mission showed presence of 12.1% TiO2.

Analyses of rocks obtained during earlier Apollo missions show lower percentages. Titanium oxide bands are prominent in the spectra of M-type stars. The element is the ninth most abundant in the crust of the earth. Titanium is almost always present in igneous rocks and in the sediments derived from them. It occurs in the minerals rutile, ilmenite, and sphene, and is present in titanates and in many iron ores.

Deposits of ilmenite and rutile are found in Florida, California, Tennessee, New York, and elsewhere. Titanium is present in the ash of coal, in plants, and in the human body.

Environmental Impact

Industrial exposures consist chiefly of dust and fume of titanium and titanium dioxide from electric furnace operations. Exposure to titanium is mainly associated with metal, dioxide, carbide, or tetrachloride. Exposure usually occurs through exposure to fumes and vapours associated with the handling of tetrachloride. The estimated body burden of titanium is about 15 mg. Most of that is in the lungs, probably as a result of inhalation exposure. Inhaled titanium tends to remain in the lungs for long periods of time. It has been estimated that about 1/3 of inhaled titanium is retained in the lungs.

Environmental Fate

Occurs as oxide in minerals rutile, ilmenite, perovskite, anatase, or octahedrite and brookite; other minerals include sphene or titanite and benitoite. Titanium is, as mentioned in the introduction, the ninth most abundant metal in the earth's crust, 0.63% by weight. Potentially significant concentrations of minerals have been found at ocean floor sites 5 to 50 miles off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. Said deposits have atleast 3 to 10% heavy minerals containing titanium.

Atmosphere

Titanium is a contaminant of urban air at an average concentration of 0.04 micrograms per cubic metre and at a maximum concentration of 1.10 micrograms per cubic metre.

The Name

Thanks for the element's name go to Dr. Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a professor of physics at the University of Berlin, who should have taught marketing as well. In 1796, Dr. Klaproth gave the name "titanium" to the metal with the atomic number 22 and the atomic weight 47.9- superseding the less catchy designation of "menachite".

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Health and Safety__________________________________________________________________

 

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

Titanium is nontoxic and consequently does not require serious limitations on its use because of health hazards.

It is pyrophoric, however, because of its heat-producing reaction with oxidizing elements such as oxygen. Large pieces of

Sheet, plate, bar, tube and ingot can be heated to high temperatures without excessive oxidation or burning. However, small

Pieces with a high surface area to mass ratio, such as machine chips and turnings, are easily ignited and burn at extremely high temperatures.

 

Large accumulations of chips and other finely divided materials should be avoided. When storing the chips and turnings, care should be taken to place the material in non-flammable containers and isolated areas. One effective storage method is to keep the material covered with water in the containers and in turn, use oil on the water. Use dry sand, powdered graphite, or commercially available Metal-X* powder. Other flammables in the vicinity of a titanium fire can be extinguished with large quantities of water.

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